While animal products are the main proteins consumed in Malaysia, there is a large disparity
between Malaysia’s self-sufficiency in ruminant and non-ruminant livestock production.
Despite significant demand, the production of the ruminant sub-sector such as cattle, sheep,
buffalo, goat and deer are still lagging behind. Local production is mainly managed on a smallscale by small-hold farmers.1 Contrarily, non-ruminant industry such as egg, poultry and swine
production is more progressive and on a large scale. In fact, non-ruminant livestock has been at self-sufficient level since the 1980s.2